This course provides an overview of how social factors can influence population characteristics and how the characteristics of population in turn affect society. We will focus on three primary demographic processes: mortality, fertility and migration. We will learn basic concepts, theories and measurements of each process from both historical and comparative approach. We will apply these basic demographic concepts to contemporary population issues such as concerns over the persistent low, below-replacement fertility level and the aging of the population in Macao, the consequences of the internal migration on urbanization in China or other developing countries. Population literacy is therefore an important part of an individual’s knowledge to understand current social, economic and political debates. In addition, population literacy is essential for yourself as you think about planning your own life in terms of human capital investments, marriage, fertility, labor force participation, saving, migration and many related aspects. In understanding these issues, we will use the social science theories and concepts such as social stratification, social interaction, and continuity and change. We will bridge sociology, anthropology, history, political science, economics, and psychology, and will do a comparative analysis between Macao, China, and other societies.